Lesson2 반말 closely, 낮춤말 talking down
반말 is the style to express "you are close to me." or say to inferior of you friendly.
We call it "해"style. You will use it to your close friend, close colleague, or your superior. Like younger brother and sister, younger man and woman, inferior of your company.
You may think 반말 is bad. But In a relationship, If two of you decied to use 반말 each other, it means that you are mutually close! It can be a ritual of korean friends, colleagues, lovers. People can still be nice and kind, even respect you while using 반말 to you. You can feel when it is.
낮춤말 is the style to express that I am the superior of you. It is 해라style. It is the remnant of corrupted타락한 confucian유교적 hierarchy계급제 and patriarchal system가부장제. They are dying now. Only old story or book you can see them.
- 낮추다 = to lower somebody down
- 계급階級 = class. In 조선, which is previous name of 한국
- 양반兩班noble, 평민common people, 노비奴婢slave.
- 가부장家父長 = The Father as the Master of a Family.
하게style is also rarely used now. but 하게 style respect other more than 해style. You can see or hear it in old peoples talk or historical story.
하게 style Examples (Rarely used now)
김 내관, 중전을 들라 하시게. Kim, Tell the queen to come in. (A king said in a historical movie)
- 중전 = 왕비's honorific = queen
- 내관 = eunuch who serve the king. They are like secretaries and have power to have an influence to the king.
- A를 들라 = A를 들어오라 A to come in
- 들어오다, 들어와요. come in
- 오다 / 와요 come
그대여, 어서 문을 여시게. My dear, Please open the door (welcome me). (In the past, a husband to his wife)
- 그대 My dear = 당신, 너's honoriffic. = you.
- 어서 quickly, (please welcome me)
- 어서 오세요. = Welcome.
- 오세요 = 와요 + -시- = 오다 / 와요 = come
- 여시게 <= 여시다, 여셔요<= 열다, 열어요 + -시- = open
해 style Examples (Commonly used)
지금 뭐해? what are you doing now? (a person send a meesage to their friend with kakaotalk)
나 지금 밥 먹어. I have a meal now. (the friend's answer)
- 나 = 저's friendly style = I
- 지금 = now
- 밥 = cooked rice, meal
- 먹어 = 먹어요's 해 style = eat
난 널 사랑해 I love you. (The couples are very close. Or same age, Or in Equal relationship. So they decided to use 반말 to eachother)
- 난 = 나는's shortend form
- 널 = 너를's shortend form
- 사랑해 = 사랑해요's 해 style = love
(너는) 나랑 같이 갈래? Do you want to go with me? (a old soldier to an orphan girl)
- (~랑) 같이 = together, with ~
- ~할래? Do you want to do~
(너는) 나(를) 좀 도와줄래? Would you help me a little? (a superior woman soldier to young inferior soldier)
- ~해줄래 Would you do~
- 좀 = shortend form of 조금 = a little
해라 Style Examples (Rarely used now)
- 저 죄인을 매우 쳐라! Hit that criminal very hard! (a officer say in a historical drama)
- 죄인 criminal who is guilty. 매우 very, 치다 = 쳐요 hit
- 너, 여자면 밥 좀 해와라! You, If you are women. Just cook a meal for me. (Old man said it to his wife)
- 밥을 하다 cook a meal
- It was the example of patriarchal system.
- 내가 비키라는 것이냐? 무례한 놈! Are you tell me to get out? What a rude! (by양반 a noble, to 평민 농부a common farmer 에게)
- 어서 적을 찾아라! Go find the enemies quickly! (by a general to inferior soldier)
- 어서 quickly
- 찾다, 찾아요 find
- 적 enemy